Read More: Vietnam war: Why did America sign a peace agreement with North Vietna… In nearby Greifswald, already lost to Sweden, Russian tsar Peter the Great and British king George I, in his position as Elector of Hanover, had just signed an alliance on 17 (OS)/28 (NS) October. [38], Since treaty of Frederiksborg in early 1720 Sweden was no longer in war with Denmark which allowed more forces to be placed against the Russians. ISBN 978-91-85873-59-3, Bengt Liljegren (2000). Charles XII moved from Saxony into Russia to confront Peter, but the campaign ended with the destruction of the main Swedish army at Poltava (now in Ukraine), and Charles's exile in Ottoman Bender. Denmark and Saxony joined the war again and Augustus the Strong, through the politics of Boris Kurakin, regained the Polish throne. Apraksin gathered an army of 15,000 men to Vyborg and started the operation in late August. In January 1719, George I, August II and emperor Charles VI concluded a treaty in Vienna aimed at the reduction of Russia's frontiers to the pre-war limits. Therein, Sweden ceded her exemption from the Sound Dues, and lost the Baltic provinces and the northern part of Swedish Pomerania. Frederik IV of Denmark–Norway directed his first attack against Sweden's ally Holstein-Gottorp. [32] Swedish efforts to maintain their defences were greatly hampered by the drain of manpower by the continental army and various garrisons around the Baltic Sea as well as by the plague outbreak which struck Finland and Sweden between 1710–1713 which devastated the land killing amongst others over half of the population of Helsingfors (Helsinki).[33]. The negotiations were mediated by French diplomats, who sought to prevent a complete collapse of Sweden's position on the southern Baltic coast and achieved that Sweden was to retain Wismar and northern Swedish Pomerania. In standards of drill and recruitment, it was nearly unmatched by… [29], Hanover-Great Britain and Brandenburg-Prussia thereupon negotiated separate peace treaties with Sweden, the treaties of Stockholm in 1719 and early 1720, which partitioned Sweden's northern German dominions among the parties. The peace treaties also ended her alliance with Holstein-Gottorp. Peter I had meanwhile recovered and gained ground in Sweden's Baltic provinces, where he cemented Russia's access to the Baltic Sea by founding Saint Petersburg in 1703. [24], Danish Altona burned down during Stenbock's campaign (1713). Sweden had lost almost all of its "overseas" holdings gained in the 17th century, and ceased to be a major power. Uniforms are dealt with very comprehensively with reconstructions by Shamenkov of the Swedish army from 1700 until 1721. Lars-Eric Höglund, Åke Sallnäs, The Great Northern War 1700 - 1721, II. A Military History of Russia: From Ivan the Terrible to the War in Chechnya, David R. Stone. Tsardom of Russia establishes itself as a new power in Europe. In the late 17th and early 18th centuries, in order to compensate for its lack of manpower and resources, Sweden strove for innovative ways to make a more effective army. This did not prevent Russian galleys from raiding town of Umeå once again. The Great Northern War was fought during the years 1700-1721 between Sweden and a coalition of countries who sought to carve up the Swedish Baltic Sea Empire between themselves. Frederick William I entered the war as elector of Brandenburg and king in Prussia – the royal title had been secured in 1701. Russia captured Viborg (ru. These victories may be ascribed to a well-trained army, which despite its comparatively small size was far more professional than most continental armies, and also to a modernization of administration (both civilian and military) in the course of the 17th century which enabled the monarchy to harness the resources of the country and its empire in an effective way. He was not able to keep northern Swedish Pomerania, Danish from 1715 to 1720. Baskakov, Benjamin I. Before going to war, Peter had made preparations for a navy and a modern-style army, based primarily on infantry drilled in the use of firearms. [39], By the time of Charles XII's death, the anti-Swedish allies became increasingly divided on how to fill the power gap left behind by the defeated and retreating Swedish armies. For parts of the war, Prussia and Hanover also joined the enemy coalition. Frederick I was however willing to cede the Swedish support for his rival in Holstein-Gottorp, which came under Danish control and the northern part annexed, and furthermore cede the Swedish privilege of exemption from the Sound Dues. 52. Thanks to General Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt, whose outnumbered forces fended the Russians off in the battles of Gemäuerthof and Jakobstadt, Sweden was able to maintain control of most of her Baltic provinces. This shattering defeat did not end the war, although it decided it. Russian forces retaliated by burning down Swedish Wolgast (same year), In 1710, the Swedish army in Poland retreated to Swedish Pomerania, pursued by the coalition. A Swedish Army for the Great Northern War- Infantry Part 1 I opted to use Roundway and Dixon15mm for this project. Ivan Mazepa was a Ukrainian Cossack hetman who fought for Russia but defected to Charles XII in 1708. Swedish General Georg Henrik Lybecker chose not to face the Russians with his 7 500 men in the prepared positions close to Vyborg and instead withdrew west of Kymijoki river using scorched earth tactics. The remaining Swedish forces in plague-stricken areas south and east of the Baltic Sea were evicted, with the last city, Riga, falling in 1710. For parts of the War also Prussia and Hannover joined the enemy coalition. The book describes the development of the Swedish Army during the Great Northern War, 1700-1721, when Sweden fought against a coalition of Russia, Denmark-Norway and Poland-Saxony. For parts of the War Prussia and Hanover also joined the enemy coalition. [citation needed] He preferred the life of an ordinary soldier on horseback, not that of contemporary baroque courts. Kampen mot övermakten. In 1700, Charles XII had a standing army of 77,000 men (based on annual training). This is when the enemies of the Swedish empire realized that it was the time to get control of the lands of the Swedish empire. This also severed the contact between Swedish fleet and ground forces and prevented Swedish naval units from supplying it. Peter's army was trapped by an Ottoman army at the Pruth river. A young boy king had inherited the crown of the Swedish Empire, and his neighbors saw an opportunity to attack. August II resisted, still possessing control of his native Saxony, but was decisively defeated at the Battle of Fraustadt in 1706, a battle sometimes compared to the Ancient Battle of Cannae due to the Swedish forces' use of double envelopment, with a deadly result for the Saxon army. He claimed the throne upon Charles XII's death, but was supplanted by Ulrike Eleonora. He ended Sweden's exemption from the Sound Dues (transit taxes/tariffs on cargo moved between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea). Mazepa died in 1710 in Ottoman exile. Sweden proper was invaded from the west by Denmark–Norway and from the east by Russia, which had occupied Finland by 1714. In the summer of 1706, Swedish General Georg Johan Maidel crossed the Neva with 4000 troops and defeated an opposing Russian force, but made no move on Saint Petersburg. His ambitions to transform the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth into an absolute monarchy were not realized. 393ff, 409ff, 420–445. The Battle of Poltava was fought July 8, 1709, during the Great Northern War and saw Peter the Great crush Charles XII's Swedish army. Swedish Army regiments are tasked with training conscripts and Home Guard troops. His meeting with Peter the Great in Rawa Ruska in September 1698, where the plans to attack Sweden were made, became legendary for its decadence. After the setbacks of 1700, he focused on transforming his state, an absolute monarchy, in a manner similar to Charles XI of Sweden. The book includes a list of suggestions for further reading, and is supported by a large number of illustrations including specially-commissioned colour uniform and flag plates. The book describes the development of the Swedish Army during the Great Northern War, 1700-1721, when Sweden fought against a coalition of Russia, Denmark-Norway and Poland-Saxony. Therefore, the war was finally concluded by the Treaty of Nystad between Russia and Sweden in Uusikaupunki (Nystad) on 30 August 1721 (OS). When Wismar surrendered in 1716, all of Sweden's Baltic and German possessions were lost.[28]. Aufbruch zur Moderne. A range of 28mm metal miniatures of outstanding quality to cover the Swedish Army of the Great Northern War. [25], In 1714, Charles XII returned from the Ottoman Empire, arriving in Stralsund in November. Charles showed no interest in returning, established a provisional court in his colony, and sought to persuade the sultan to engage in an Ottoman-Swedish assault on Russia. By 1707 this number had swollen to at least 120,000 despite casualties. Roundway come with cast on flags which I removed in no time at all with a pair of snips. He did put an end to the Swedish threat south of Denmark. Charles XI had tried to keep the empire out of wars, and concentrated on inner reforms such as reduction and allotment, which had strengthened the monarch's status and the empire's military abilities. Jul 25, 2018 - Explore James Isakov's board "Great Northern War" on Pinterest. Boris Grigorjev & Aleksandr Bespalov (2012). Russia gained its Baltic territories, and became the greatest power in Eastern Europe. Baltikums fall 1700-1710. pp. The book describes the development of the Swedish Army during the Great Northern War, 1700-1721, when Sweden fought against a coalition of Russia, Denmark-Norway and Poland-Saxony. The war ended with Sweden's defeat, leaving Russia as the new dominant power in the Baltic region and a major force in European politics. Articles needing page number citations from September 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2014, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with no article parameter, Articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Wars involving the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, had the king arrested in what became known as the "kalabalik", plague outbreak which struck Finland and Sweden, Treaties of Stockholm (Great Northern War), Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, Algonet.se, Högman. Dec 13, 2020 - Explore Foster Wood's board "Great Northern War / Stora Nordiska Kriget", followed by 712 people on Pinterest. A description of the Army as it was at the time of the outbreak of the war in 1700, as well as the system of fortresses around the Baltic Sea is provided. See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. In view of continued failure to check Russian consolidation, and with declining manpower, Sweden opted to blockade Saint Petersburg in 1705. Furthermore, he attempted to bar Great Britain access to the Baltic Sea. Defenders, however, managed to fend off landing attempts by the attackers until Russians landed to their flank at Sandviken which forced Armfelt to retire towards Borgå after setting afire both the town and all the supplies stored there as well as bridges leading north from the town. The strategic situation in the Baltic Sea region in the last 1690s is given, and is then followed up by an analysis of the strategic situation in the early 1720s. In search for allies, Charles XII also negotiated with the British Jacobite party. He determinedly pursued his goal of dethroning his adversaries, whom he considered unworthy of their thrones due to broken promises, thereby refusing to take several chances to make peace. For parts of the War Prussia and Hanover also joined the enemy coalition. (1890) (in Russian). The troops, who arrived on 12 October, therefore had to abandon the siege after only a few days. The book describes the development of the Swedish Army during the Great Northern War, 1700-1721, when Sweden fought against a coalition of Russia, Denmark-Norway and Poland-Saxony. Charles XII refrained from all kinds of luxury and alcohol and usage of the French language, since he considered these things decadent and superflous. "This book, to paraphrase an advertising slogan, ‘does what it says on the cover’ and is highly recommended for any wargamer interested in the Great Northern War and the Swedish Army of Charles XII." After the disaster of Poltava in 1709, the shattered Swedish continental army could provide very little help. Great Northern War. Charles Frederick was married to a daughter of Peter I, Anna Petrovna. Pursued by coalition forces, the Swedish army was trapped and surrendered in the Siege of Tönning. pp. A respective treaty was concluded in Frederiksborg in June 1720. On 21–22 May 1713 Russian force of 10,000 men landed at Pernå (fi. The uniform information comes from Lars-Eric Höglund's book while the strength reports comes from the work by the Swedish General Staff "Karl XII på slagfältet" and Margus Laidre's book "Segern vid Narva". As negotiations for peace did not progress the Russian galleys were once again in 1721 sent to raid Swedish coast targeting primarily the Swedish coast between Gävle and Piteå. He was determined to gain the Oder estuary with its access to the Baltic Sea for the Brandenburgian core areas, which had been a state goal for centuries. Disregarding Polish negotiation proposals supported by the Swedish parliament, Charles crossed into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and decisively defeated the Saxe-Polish forces in the Battle of Klissow in 1702. For a wargamer there is all you need to field a Swedish force but as the Great Northern War lasted so long you will probably have to decide on an early GNW Swede force or later. Campaigns on the continent had been proposed on the basis that the army would be financially self-supporting through plunder and taxation of newly gained land, a concept shared by most major powers of the period. Poland-Lithuania was formally neutral at this point, as August started the war as a king of Saxony. Charles XII then turned south to meet his last undefeated opponent: Augustus II, Elector of Saxony, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. 1999), Svenska krig 1521–1814 (Swedish Wars 1521–1814) He has published several books and articles about the Great (Stockholm 1998) and Svenska freder och stillestand 1249–1814 Northern War, notably Fraustadt 1706 – Ett fält färgat rött (Swedish Peace Treaties and Truces 1249–1814) (Stockholm (Fraustadt 1706, A Field Dyed Red) which was critically acclaimed 1997). Most of the Swedish dominions were partitioned among the coalition members, destroying the Swedish dominium maris baltici. August II, The Strong (left) and Frederick William I of Prussia (right). They met stubborn resistance, ran out of supplies and, after reaching the Gulf of Finland west of Kronstadt, had to be evacuated by sea between 10–17 October. A grand mobilization covering Russia's vast territories would have been unrealistic. About 200,000 Swedish: Series : Century of the Soldier 1618-1721 #26, General - Though his primary goal was Moscow, the strength of his forces was sapped by the cold weather (the winter of 1708/09 being one of the most severe in modern European history) and Peter's use of scorched earth tactics. Finland was returned to Sweden, while Swedish Estonia, Livonia, Ingria, Kexholm and the bulk of Karelia were ceded to Russia. I have long been interested in this conflict, it is a demonstration of how, through training, discipline and willpower, a tiny nation can impose (for a while) its policies upon its neighbors. The book describes the development of the Swedish Army during the Great Northern War, 1700-1721, when Sweden fought against a coalition of Russia, Denmark-Norway and Poland-Saxony. He is published in The Great Northern War Compendium and taught history at the University of New Hampshire. In November, the Russian and Swedish armies met at the First Battle of Narva where the Russians suffered a crushing defeat.[19]. This surprise move and pressure by the Maritime Powers (England and the Dutch Republic) forced Denmark–Norway to withdraw from the war in August 1700 according to the terms of the Peace of Travendal. Denmark contributed 20,000 men in their invasion of Holstein-Gottorp and more on other fronts. [36], In 1714 far greater Swedish naval assets were diverted towards Finland which managed to cut the coastal sea route past Hangö cape already in early May 1714. The occupation period of Finland in 1714–1721 is known as the Greater Wrath. However like so often Swedish naval units arrived only after the initial Russian spring campaign had ended. Peter From, Katastrofen vid Poltava (2007) Lund, Historiska media. The foreign interventions in Russia during the Time of Troubles resulted in Swedish gains in the Treaty of Stolbovo (1617). Frederick IV and Augustus II were forced out of the alliance in 1700 and 1706 respectively, but rejoined it in 1709. The ruler of the Russian empire: Peter the Great, the King of Danes: Fredrick IV, and the King of Poland-Lithuania: Augustus, had their share of interests in the Swedish empire. Most notably the Electorate of Saxony with a growing army which had reached 18 000 men when it to the great surprise of Sweden started the Great Northern War by attacking Riga in 1700, with Denmark and Russia following soon after. Petersen (2007), pp. In 1705, repeated Swedish attacks were made against Russian fortifications in the area, to little effect. Vyborg) in 1710 and successfully held it against Swedish attempts to retake the town in 1711. Miniature Wargames, DeliveryFrequently Asked QuestionsDownloads inc. Catalogues & Paper SoldiersTrade InformationAuthor GuidelinesTerms & Conditions, Helion & CompanyUnit 8, Amherst Business CentreBudbrooke RoadWarwickCV34 5WE, © 2019 - 2021 Helion & Company Limited & SWD • Legal Info • Terms of Use • Privacy & Cookies, War & Military Culture in South Asia 1757-1947. The war resulted in the decline of Swedish influence and the emergence of Russia as a major power in that region. Peter the Great, whose forces were spread all around the Baltic Sea, envisioned hegemony in East Central Europe and sought to establish naval bases as far west as Mecklenburg. Russian fortunes began to reverse in the final years of the 17th century, notably with the rise to power of Peter the Great, who looked to address the earlier losses and re-establish a Baltic presence. At the battle of Narva the Swedish Regiments probably had the following uniforms and strengths. Charles XII opened up a Norwegian front, but was killed in Fredriksten in 1718. The book describes the development of the Swedish Army during the Great Northern War, 1700-1721, when Sweden fought against a coalition of Russia, Denmark-Norway and Poland-Saxony. Pages : 120 | Images : 8pp colour plates, b/w ills & maps, Paperback - Date of Publication : June 2018 | Size : 248mm x 180mm | ISBN : 9781912390182 | Helion Book Code : HEL0910. Charles XII, sometimes Carl XII (Swedish: Karl XII) or Carolus Rex (17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S. Nicholas Wragg is raising funds for Swedish Army of the Great Northern War by Ebor miniatures on Kickstarter! He was succeeded by his sister, Ulrika Eleonora. When peace was concluded with Denmark, the anti-Swedish coalition had already fallen apart, and Denmark was not in a military position to negotiate a return of her former eastern provinces across the sound. Large stores of supplies and munitions were transported from Vyborg and Saint Petersburg to the new base of operations. He greatly expanded the size of Russia during his reign while providing access to the Baltic, Black, and Caspian seas. See more ideas about war, swedish army, military history. When the main army turned south to recover in the Ukraine, the second army with supplies and reinforcements was intercepted and routed at Lesnaya—and so were the supplies and reinforcements of Swedish ally Ivan Mazepa in Baturyn. Russo-Crimean Wars. Karl XII: En biografi. The Battle of Narva dealt a severe setback to Peter the Great, but the shift of Charles XII's army to the Polish-Saxon threat soon afterwards, provided him with an opportunity to regroup and regain territory in the Baltic provinces. Sweden parried the Danish and Russian attacks at Travendal and Narva, and in a counter-offensive pushed August II's forces through Lithuania and Poland to Saxony, dethroning August on the way and forcing him to acknowledge defeat in the Treaty of Altranstädt. After Charles XII had returned from the Ottoman Empire and resumed personal control of the war effort, he initiated two Norwegian Campaigns, starting in February 1716, to force Denmark–Norway into a separate peace treaty. The Ottoman empire defeated the Russian army in the Pruth River Campaign, but the peace treaty was in the end without great consequence to Russia's position. During the war, the most important Swedish commanders besides Charles XII were his close friend Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld, also Magnus Stenbock and Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt. Lund: Historiska media. In 1697, Sweden was a great power until Charles XI died; he left the entire empire in the hands of his 14-year-old son, Charles XII. Beside Peter, the principal Russian commanders were Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov and Boris Sheremetev. Sweden's dissatisfaction with the result led to fruitless attempts at recovering the lost territories in the course of the following century, such as the Russo-Swedish War (1741–1743), and the Russo-Swedish War (1788–1790). Small hastily assembled Swedish coastal squadron met the Russian galley fleet west of Hangö cape in the battle of Gangut and was overpowered by the Russians who had nearly 10 fold superiority. Charles was crushingly defeated by a larger Russian force under Peter in the Battle of Poltava and fled to the Ottoman Empire while the remains of his army surrendered at Perevolochna.[23]. The Danish forces were defeated. p. 78. Charles XII led the Swedish army. Hanover gained Bremen-Verden, Brandenburg-Prussia incorporated the Oder estuary, Russia secured the Baltic provinces, and Denmark strengthened her position in Schleswig-Holstein. The amount of available uniform information varies however for the different regiments and I have been forced to fill in the gaps of knowledge with later information (or earlier in appropriate cases). The Norwegian campaigns were halted and the army withdrawn when Charles XII was shot dead while besieging Norwegian Fredriksten on 30 November 1718 (OS). In 1710 the Russian forces captured Riga, at the time the most populated city in the Swedish realm, and Tallinn, evicting the Swedes from the Baltic provinces, now integrated in the Russian Empire by the capitulation of Estonia and Livonia. Charles XII † (–1718) Eleonora I (1718–20) Frederick I (1720–), Frederick IV † (–1702) Duke Charles (1702–) Stanisław Leszczyński, Initial force: 80,000: 76,000[1] : 5,000[2], Initial force: 260,000: 110,000[8]: 30,000[9]: 50,000[10]: 40,000[11] : 30,000[8]. However, despite great successes on the battlefield, inadequate economy and small manpower caused the demise of the Swedish Empire, which ended its 110-year period as a great power in 1721. Charles remained there until December 1715, escaping only days before Stralsund fell. Additionally each regiment can mobilise in times of crisis or war operational battalions for the army's rapid reaction organisation. Poland and Saxony together could mobilize at least 100,000 men. Yet the town could not be taken due to the arrival of a Swedish relief army, which secured the Pomeranian pocket before turning west to defeat an allied army in the Battle of Gadebusch. George I and Frederik IV both coveted hegemony in northern Germany, while August the Strong was concerned about Frederick William I's ambitions on the southeastern Baltic coast. May 9, 2019 - Explore Chip DuRant's board "Great Northern War", followed by 807 people on Pinterest. In 1713, Brandenburg-Prussia allied with Russia in the Treaty of Schwedt. [2]Robert Nisbet Bain, Charles XII and the Collapse of the Swedish Empire, 243. After the failure of 1712 Peter the Great ordered that further campaigns in war ravaged regions of Finland with poor transportation network were to be performed along the coastline and the seaways near the coast. Swedish and British fleets, now allied with Sweden, sailing from the west coast of Sweden failed to catch the raiders. Peter continued his campaigns in the Baltics, and eventually he built up a powerful navy. pp. This caused severe trouble for Russian supply route to Åbo and beyond as supplies had to be carried overland. In the Treaty of Hanover (1710), Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) whose elector was to become George I of Great Britain allied with Russia. See more ideas about war, swedish army, history. The Vyborg castle ablaze after the Russian attack on the city in 1710. The equipment and tactics of the Army are presented, not the least how they developed during the long period of the war. The tactics of Caroleans differed from those of Western European soldiers in their greater reliance upon pikes, rapiers, bayonets, and offensive strategy, which helped … Peter managed to negotiate a retreat, making a few territorial concessions and promising to withdraw his forces from the Holy Roman Empire as well as allowing Charles's return to Sweden. These became known as Kronstadt and Kronslot. The cost of the warfare proved to be much higher than the occupied countries could fund, and Sweden's coffers, and resources in manpower, were eventually drained in the course of long conflicts. Yet, primarily due to internal conflicts in Great Britain and France, that did not happen. [18], Charles XII was now able to speedily deploy his army to the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea and face his remaining enemies: besides the army of Augustus II in Livonia, an army of Russian tsar Peter I was already on its way to invade Swedish Ingria,[18] where it laid siege to Narva in October. The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. After Poltava, the anti-Swedish coalition was re-established and subsequently joined by Hanover and Prussia. The Swedish Army of the Great Northern War, 1700-1721 Paperback – Illustrated, Aug. 17 2018 by Lars Ericson Wolke (Author) 4.6 out of 5 stars 29 ratings. His son Karl XI would further strengthen the army by introducing the Caroleans, which were also used by Karl XII in the Great Northern War. Armies met later again at Storkyro (Isokyrö) in February 1714 where Russians won a decisive victory. The formal conclusion of the war was marked by the Swedish-Hanoverian and Swedish-Prussian Treaties of Stockholm (1719), the Dano-Swedish Treaty of Frederiksborg (1720), and the Russo-Swedish Treaty of Nystad (1721). The Nyen fortress was soon abandoned and demolished by Peter, who constructed nearby a superior fortress as a beginning to the city of Saint Petersburg By 1704, other fortresses were situated on the island of Kotlin and the sand flats to its south. Later in the autumn Peter I led an army of 20,000 men in an attempt to take the Swedish town and fortress of Viborg. Europa in der Frühen Neuzeit: Festschrift für Günter Mühlpfordt ( 1997 ) ( in )... Of Brandenburg and king in Prussia – the royal title had been made December. Was married to a daughter of peter I, Anna Petrovna of failed... From, Katastrofen vid Poltava ( 2007 ) Lund, Historiska media he preferred the life an! 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